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GRANTING OF A CONSTITUTION  501
intensified by the retrograde policy and oppressive rule of
:he Ayn-u-Dola, whose career is referred to below. This
;ombination of circumstances brought about a popular
movement for the dismissal of the obnoxious Minister,
ivhich according to Persian precedent took the form of
sitting in bast, or sanctuary ; and the demand for a con-
stitution, inspired by a few Persians with European
education, was gradually formulated.1
Sayyid Jamal-u-Din.—The founder of the movement
was a certain Sayyid Jamal-u-Din. This remarkable man
was the son of a village Sayyid of no position and was
born in 1838 .near Hamadan. After being educated
at Najaf, he resided for some years in Afghanistan and
adopted the title of "The Afghan," He travelled and
taught in India, in Egypt, and elsewhere, and at one time
settled in Constantinople. There he pretended to be a
Sunni and gained fame as an eloquent and learned doctor
of law. He was, however, accused of infidelity by the
Shaykh-ul-Islamy the leading religious official in Turkey,
and was obliged to leave the city.
His connexion with Nasir-u-Din was brought about
through the deep impression made upon the Shah by
certain articles which he wrote for an Arabic newspaper
whose title may be translated " The Indissoluble Link."
He was summoned to Persia and made a member of the
Royal Council, and his opinion carried great weight with
the sovereign. This state of affairs naturally aroused the
jealousy of the Amin-u-Sultan, who induced the Ottoman
Ambassador to press for his deportation. Knowing that
the word " law " was obnoxious to the Shah, he stated
that the Sayyid had caused disturbances by advocating
the adoption of fixed laws, and had been expelled from
India, Egypt, and Turkey, He gave it as his opinion
that it would be dangerous to retain in Persia a man with
such revolutionary ideas. The Shah agreed, and Jamal-
u-Din was instructed to quit the country and travel.
He again met Nasir-u-Din in Europe during that
monarch's third journey; and the Shah, thinking him
1 Very few Persians understood what a constitution meant, and during the crisis a
British official was reproached in the following terms: " We have sat in bast three days,
and yet you have not given us * Constitution'!"